Sunday, July 19, 2020
5 Things You Can Do to Achieve Flow More in Self-Improvement Happiness Meditation Stress Management Spirituality Holistic Health Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships Flow is often described as a mental state in which people experience complete immersion and involvement in an activity. Things seem to happen almost effortlessly and time seems to disappear while in this state. Athletes often refer to this state of mind as being in the zone. Everything vanishes around me, and works are born as if out of the void, said the artist Paul Klee. Ripe, graphic fruits fall off. My hand has become the obedient instrument of a remote will. What Klee described in this quote is a perfect example of what psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi calls flow. Total immersion in a task, a feeling of complete concentration and losing track of the outside world are all common characteristics of this state of mind. Obviously reaching this state of flow is something many of us would like to accomplish on a regular basis. Fortunately, flow is not something restricted to just elite athletes, artists, and performers. You can achieve this state during a number of activities such as while working, while engaging in exercise, or while engaging in a hobby. So what exactly does it take to achieve a state of flow? 1. Your Skills Need to Be Well-Matched to the Task According to Csikszentmihalyi, flow is most likely to occur when your skill level is perfectly aligned to the challenge that the activity presents. So a runner might experience flow during a marathon that he or she is well-prepared for, or a chess-player might reach this state during a game that presents the perfect challenge. In other words, gaining practice, experience, and expertise in an activity will make it more likely that you will achieve flow in the future. 2. Stretching Your Skills Can Lead to a State of Flow A slight stretching of your skills, or attempting something that is a little more advanced than your current abilities, can also foster a flow state. For a dancer, this might involve attempting a move that presents a bit of a challenge. For a graphic designer, it might involve taking on a project that requires utilizing a new type of software. Focus on adding new challenges on a regular basis. Not only will you become more skilled, you may find that the state of flow becomes much easier to achieve. 3. Have Clear Goals You need to have a specific purpose for focusing on the task, such as winning an athletic contest, playing a particular piece of music or finishing a work project. That is not to say you should only engage in an activity in order to achieve a goal. People who achieve flow frequently are often intrinsically motivated to perform certain actions. In other words, they may have specific goals in mind, but they engage in these actions for their own sake as well. 4. Avoid Interruptions It is important to devote all of your concentration to the task at hand. Multitasking and other distractions will disrupt the flow state. Set aside a time and space that will allow you to work on a project without being interrupted or distracted. Turn off your phone, television or other devices that might pull you away from the task at hand. 5. Focus on the Process and Not the End State While having a goal is important, flow requires enjoying the journey and not just fixating on the end product. Allow yourself to simply live in the present moment without worrying too much about the ultimate outcome of your efforts. Achieving flow can be a pleasurable experience, but it may also have other benefits as well. Research suggests that the benefits of flow include increased skill development and improved performance. Becoming more skilled and capable at a task can help improve your self-esteem in that area and give you a boost of self-confidence related to those skills.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Discuss the view that crime is socially constructed, give examples to illustrate your answer! Introduction Crime prevalently commits around the globe either refer back to past experiences or even within present or ongoing society. Crime is indeed not commendable to commit in any society. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that it is there as a complex issue and well explained as a part of any particular society. Therefore, what crime actually is? Crime delineates as an illegal act either against law, collective wellbeing, or even political wellbeing (Bradley Walters, 2011). It then overall deems as a kind of harmful behavior towards certain values or norms of the society it committed in. It is interesting to note that Becker (from labelling theory) claimed by saying no action in itself crime or deviant, it depends upon who commits it, who sees it, and what action is taken about it (Becker, 1991). So it is to underline that crime is really a social creation, and does not have such reality of its own, historical relative and characterized by the constant changing (Henry, 2001; Bradley Walters, 2011). This is not the whole thing, it is an ending quest as we continually seek an adequate answer to justify such claim that crime is a product of the society and that it characterized by shifting over time and setting. In this essay I will unpack three motives of why crime has been posited to be a social construction rather a reality in itself autonomous or neutral.Show MoreRelatedOutline the View That Crime Is Socially Constructed Essay763 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesoffer different definitions of crime, suggesting that it is a social construction as it varies across culture, time and belief. It will examine the role of social construction, through interpretation and meaning, in the identification, reporting and legal consequences of criminal acts. After illustrating how fear, escalated by the media, can directly affect crime, it will conclude that crime and its consequences are socially constructed. The obvious definition of crime is the legal definition ofRead MoreOutline and assess the view that crime and deviance are socially constructed1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Outline and assess the view that crime and deviance are socially constructed There has been a pleather of research regarding the issue of crime and deviance. A definition of crime and deviance can be explained in relative terms which are dependant on any particular societyÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of crime and deviance. Cultures differ from one society to another and the general consensus of right and wrong can also evolve throughout time. Definitions of crime and deviance can evolve with factors suchRead More Social Norms1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesspiritually divine form of ritualistic sacrifice in the ancient Aztec culture of Mexico. Yet in Western culture murder and the consumption of human flesh is considered highly revolting, dealt with by harsher consequences by law than most other deviant crimes. These differences are due to the way each individual society develops their own moral codes. These codes are often defined by cultural ideologies, adversity to other cultures and ritualistic practises which have become accepted, as well establishedRead MoreWha t Deviance Is Socially Constructed Essay1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesQuestion 1 Ã¢â¬â Explain what deviance is socially constructed means. Discuss 2 types of positive deviance and 2 types of negative deviance which are socially constructed in the United States. Provide examples of each. Deviance is socially constructed because it is defined and outlined firmly by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s norms. As a result, a deviant act in one society may not be considered deviant within a different society. Societies define themselves through the shared common values of the individuals and in orderRead MoreCrime Is A Social Construction1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis essay I will be discussing ChristieÃ¢â¬â¢s (2004) viewpoint that crime is a social construction, drawing viewpoints from Henry (2001), Walklate (2007), and Cohen (1972). Firstly, it is important to address the construction of the dictionary definition of crime and then to delve further into the changing nature of crime itself, also reflecting on crime within certain contexts. This will happen by looking at the current definition of crime and cross-examining it with ChristieÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical perspectiveRead MoreCrime Is Defined And Recorded, And Will1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBecker (1963) believes that an act of devian ce is created through the process of labelling. This view is based on the idea that societies have rules that determine what is acceptable or unacceptable. These are determined by those in power, such as the government and police. If someone breaks these rules, they are labelled deviant. This essay will look at the implications of this view in regards to how crime is defined and recorded, and will also assess the effect this has on official criminal statisticsRead MoreEffects Of Labelling On Deviant Behaviour1502 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescan be dependent on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s subjective views which can be influence the study of crime and reliability of crime statistics. Within my essay IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be exploring the effects of labelling on deviant behaviour, and the ways in which views differ due to the influence of various groups within society and the influence of the media on societies interpretation of deviance. Deviance is understood to be behaviour which deviates from what is seen as the norm or what is socially acceptable by violating the rules ofRead MoreSociology - The Comparative Method1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexposing misinterpreted norms. Norms that society consider natural and inevitable characteristics of human existence) reified (the human created norms or truths) beliefs. Obviously there are various ways in which a nomi (a labeled, sometime constructed, norm or truth) can be exposed. Which form of the comparative method should one use however? The answer, whichever one applies to the truth in question. For example, you certainly would not do a cross-gender form of comparison if you wishedRead MoreAssess the Sociological Explanation That Childhood Is a Social Construction.1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAssess the sociological explanation that childhood is a social construction. Childhood is the time of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life when they are a child. Childhood is said to be socially constructed, meaning that it has not been influenced by nature but has been shaped by the quality of family life and the culture within society. The social construction of childhood points out that childhood is dependent on a number of social factors rather than a biological stage. Sociologists argue about what the term Ã¢â¬ËchildhoodÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreSocial Construction Theory And Social Class1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesincome, wealth, power, and occupation. Social class is socially constructed by the way we view how much income and wealth a person possess (Ore, 20011a, 10). In reality it is much more than that. According to the text, poverty is not only the shortage of income, but it is the rejection of opportunities and choices that leads a person to a standard way of living (Ore, 2011a, 10). Stereotyping also contributes to it being socially constructed. These stereotypes influ ence us by defining who is who based
According to the Social Learning Theory, our moral behavior is shaped by the reinforcement and punishment stimuli through the process of learning. It means that if a child was punished in the past for a certain behavior and is faced with such a situation again, he/she will avoid this behavior. As a social being, a person lives within a group or a community and Ã¢â¬Å"tends to perform actions and behave in a manner conducive to community approvalÃ¢â¬ . We will write a custom essay sample on Moral development or any similar topic only for you Order Now The greatest criticism of this theory is that Ã¢â¬Å"it does not provide a proper overall personality assessmentÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"It focuses more on the factors perceived as negative by the learner Ã¢â¬â it does not account for what may be considered positive.Ã¢â¬ (Social Learning Theory) According to KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of moral development, Ã¢â¬Å"there are six identifiable stages of moral developmentÃ¢â¬ which could be classified into three levels. (KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of moral development) The pre-conventional level. In stage 1, Ã¢â¬Å"people behave according to socially acceptable norms because they are told to do so by some authority figureÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"This obedience is compelled by the threat or application of punishment.Ã¢â¬ Stage 2 Ã¢â¬Å"is characterized by a view that right behavior means acting in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own best interestsÃ¢â¬ . (Barger, Robert N. A Summary Of Lawrence KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Stages Of Moral Development) The conventional level. In stage 3 individuals Ã¢â¬Å"seek approval from other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢. Stage 4 is Ã¢â¬Å"oriented to abiding by the law and responding to the obligations of dutyÃ¢â¬ . (Barger, Robert N. A) The post-conventional level. Stage 5 is Ã¢â¬Å"an understanding of social mutuality and a genuine interest in the welfare of others.Ã¢â¬ Stage 6 is Ã¢â¬Å"based on respect for universal principles and the demands of individual conscience.Ã¢â¬ (Barger, Robert N. A) It appears that people rarely reach stage 6 of this model and Kohlberg Ã¢â¬Å"had difficulty finding participants who use itÃ¢â¬ . (KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of moral development) Ã¢â¬Å"One criticism of KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is that it emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other valuesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"may not adequately address the arguments of people who value other moral aspects of actions.Ã¢â¬ Carol Gilligan has argued that the theory is Ã¢â¬Å"male-centricÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"did not adequately describe the concerns of womenÃ¢â¬ . (KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of moral development) Kohlberg claimed hisÃ six stages are cultural-universal. Simpson (1974) argues that Ã¢â¬Å"KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s interview employs analytic and theoretical modes of thought and language such as Ã¢â¬Å"justice, equality and reciprocity at a high level of abstractionÃ¢â¬ which are not valued by many culturesÃ¢â¬ . According to Bergling (1981), KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stages 1 Ã¢â¬â 4 are Ã¢â¬Å"empirically supported in western industrialized countries but findings from the Bahamas and British Honduras fail to support even a stage 4Ã¢â¬ . (Ma, King Keung Problems In The Cro ss-Cultural Study Of Moral Judgment Development) BIBLIOGRAPHY: Barger, Robert N. A Summary Of Lawrence KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Stages Of Moral Development,(August, 23 2005) KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of moral development,Ã http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s_stages_of_moral_development (August, 23 2005) Ma, King Keung Problems In The Cross-Cultural Study Of Moral Judgment Development, http://126.96.36.199/searchq=cache:LAHMEA0UqdAJ:sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/33/3300251.pdf+weak+points+in+Kohlberg%60s+moral+development+theory+;hl=uk (August, 23 2005) Social Learning Theory, http://www.termpapergenie.com/SocialLearningTheory.html (August,24 2005) How to cite Moral development, Essay examples Moral Development Free Essays Moral development 0-19 There is no moral development between the ages 0 and 18 months. 18mths to 2years- Is sensitive to adult approval and disapproval and will actively seek to make adults happy despite their tantrums. 2 to 3years- appears independent and wants to be good, but is not yet mature enough to be able to carry out most promises they make. We will write a custom essay sample on Moral Development or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3 to 4years- Begins to know right from wrong. Finds otherÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions of self to be important. Is more self-controlled and less aggressive. Uses extreme verbal threats such as, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll kill you,Ã¢â¬ without understanding. 4 to 5years- Is becoming aware of right and wrong; usually has desire to do right; may blame others for own wrongdoing. 5 to 6years- Is interested in being good, but may tell lies or blame others for wrongdoings because of intense desire to please and do right. Wants to do what he/she believes is right and avoid what is wrong. 6 to 7years- Is very concerned with personal behavior, particularly as it affects family and friends; sometimes blames others for own wrongdoing. to 8years- May experience guilt and shame. 8 to 12years- Is very conscious of fairness and is becoming highly competitive. Argues over fairness; has difficulty admitting mistakes but is becoming more capable of accepting failures and mistakes and taking responsibility for them. Is clearly acquiring a conscience; is aware of right and wrong; wants to do right, but sometimes overreacts or rebels against a strict conscience. H as strong sense of justice and a strict moral code. More concerned with what is wrong than what is right. Has strong need to fit in with peer-group morals. 12-16years- Knows right and wrong; tries to weigh alternatives and arrive at decisions alone. Is concerned about fair treatment of others; is usually reasonably thoughtful; is unlikely to lie. 16-19years- Is confused and upset about differences between stated values and actual behaviours of family and friends; experiences feelings of frustration, anger, sorrow, and isolation. May be interested in sex as response to physical-emotional urges and as a way to participate in the adult world. How to cite Moral Development, Papers Moral Development Free Essays The elementary years can be considered as a crucial point when it comes to the character formation of a person. This is where he faces new things; knowledge and information that could greatly affect his life in the future. This is the time in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life where he or she develops a concept about whatÃ¢â¬â¢s good or bad. We will write a custom essay sample on Moral Development or any similar topic only for you Order Now Because of this, adult intervention is necessary; parents as well as teachers should do their best in supervising every step of development their children undergoes. In KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, the time when children enter elementary school is his second in three broad levels of moral development (Boeree, 2003). This is the conventional morality level, wherein the definition of right and wrong would usually depend on Ã¢â¬Å"what the people would sayÃ¢â¬ (Colman, 2001). This part is what requires most adult attention, since they are the ones the children look up to, being the basis of what they would follow in the future. This stage is further divided into two sub-stages. The first stage is the good boy/good girl stage, wherein children try to live up to what others expect them to be, as well as seek their approval in everything they do. It is important for adults to show them the Ã¢â¬Å"right thingsÃ¢â¬ because everything they do becomes a basis of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Another sub-stage is the law and order stage, where children now takes a perspective that involves the social system as well, taking into consideration the rules and laws of the society they are living in, as well as the authorities they have to follow. At these elementary years, we can address the teaching of moral development in schools by devising or structuring out what should be taught to these children (Nucci, 2002). At this stage, they should be already provided with the basic laws and regulations that they should follow as a Ã¢â¬Å"good citizenÃ¢â¬ . These could start by introducing the school laws and regulations and relating it to the laws of the society. Another concern also would be about their teacher. These childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher should be a model they could look up to as a person, so that their concept of conventional morality would depend on what their teachers show them. References: Boeree, C. G. (2003). Moral Development.Ã Ã Retrieved November 10, 2007, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/genpsymoraldev.html Colman, A. M. (2001). Conventional Morality. In A Dictionary of Psychology: Oxford University Press. Nucci, L. (2002). Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview.Ã Ã Retrieved November 10, 2007, from http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html Ã Ã How to cite Moral Development, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Driving Question: How does the media shape how we see others and ourselves? Assignment: As the documentary Miss Representation explains, Ã¢â¬Å"The media is now the message and the messenger. Ã¢â¬ Every day, we take in countless hours of media that influence how we view others and in turn how we view ourselves. It is our responsibility to consume media in an intelligent way AND fight back against negative messages put forth by the media. Research Paper: You will choose a specific group in American society (gender, race, etc. . You will then explore how that group is represented in a variety of media (television, film, music, video games, etc. ) and what affect that has on our society and on members of that group. Your research should include both primary sources (the media Ã¢â¬â shows, songs, films, etc. ) AND secondary sources (criticism of media, news articles, studies on racial or gender groups, etc. ) * Possible Groups: Men, Women, Asian Americans, African Americans, Latino Americans * Requirements: Three Pages, with at least THREE body paragraphs * Written in MLA format, with in-text citations and a Bibliography page * Includes analysis of at least THREE media sources * References at least TWO secondary sources that critique the media. We will write a custom essay sample on Miss Representation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page * Use a variety of sentence structures, FREE from run-ons and fragments, spelling errors and MLA pagination. * Honors: You will pick a person who is a member of the group that you are researching who counteracts the stereotypes generally presented about that group in the media. For example, if I was writing a paper about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal in the media, I could write about Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor Ã¢â¬â a woman in a powerful position. ) Then, you will write TWO body paragraphs explaining the individual and how the individual is paving the way for others of that specific group in American society. Due Dates: Research Paper| Deliverables| Due Date| Complete? | Source Sheet| May 29 | Ã | Outline| | Ã | First Draft | | Ã | Final Draft| | Ã | **Note: these are subject to change* Research Paper Requirements| Three Pages, with at least THREE body paragraphs * Written in MLA format, with in-text citations and a Works Cited page * Includes analysis of at least THREE media sources| * References at least TWO critical or expository sources * Use a variety of sentence structures FREE from run-ons, fragments, spelling and grammar issues. | CATEGORY| 4| 3| 2| 1. 5| 1| 0| Essay Organization | I have three body paragraphs (five for honors) and utilize transitions and connections between paragraphs to help enhance the essay. | I have two body paragraphs and utilize transitions to support the flow of my essay. I have two body paragraphs amp; sometimes use transitions to support the flow of my essay. | I have two body paragraphs and rarely use transitions to support the flow of my essay. | I have two body paragraphs and never use transitions to support the flow of my essay. | I have not done enough work to provide evidence of my essay organization| MLA Formatting | I have formatted my paper to MLA with the correct spacing and citations. | I have a couple mistakes in my formatting. | I have more than two mistakes in my formatting. | I attempted to use MLA but there are many mistakes. | I have no evidence; my MLA format is incorrect. I have no evidence; I did not follow MLA formatting. | Grammar and Mechanics. | I do not make grammatical mistakes. I use academic language. | I make some grammatical mistakes and use mostly academic language. | I make some grammatical mistakes and use mostly informal language. | I make grammatical mistakes and use mostly informal language. | I do not appear to have knowledge of English conventions and use informal language. | I have not done enough work to provide evidence| Use of Evidence | My evidence includes examples of mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of my group and secondary sources that provide criticism of the media on my group. I included ample evidence to solidly prove my thesis. |
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Blowing in the Wind Essays Blowing in the Wind Paper Blowing in the Wind Paper Is The Answer: Blowing in the Wind? With the figure of people turning daily, the usage of electricity is on the addition. The Earth will run out of the supply of fossil fuels, if this uneconomical usage continues. The modern comfortss as ovens, air conditioners, visible radiations, etc. all use electricity. We need to look for other beginnings of energy. The other beginnings could be solar, atomic, H2O, and air current power. The 1 that does nt consume itself is wind power. No affair how much air current that is used, there is ever wind left for tomorrow. The good thing about air current is that it is free. As we face the energy jobs of tomorrow, we need to retrieve the words of Bob Dylan`s vocal: Is The Answer: Blowing in the Wind? When you are outside and the air current is blowing, you can experience it. Wind will mess your hair, blow things into you, and if difficult adequate knock you down. You can`t wing a kite or sail your boat without air current. Wind can work for you by utilizing the kinetic energy it produces to pump H2O or do electrical power. Wind moves across the surface of the Earth. A hurricane can bring forth really strong air current and at other times a soft zephyr will rustle the foliages. The Sun plays an of import portion in bring forthing air current by the uneven warming of the Earth. Warm air rises and colder air replaces it. This is called circulation and the air current is the air traveling. Sometimes there are big countries of air current, and certain provinces are more blowy than others. Examples of blowy provinces are California, Texas, and Oklahoma. Peoples have been utilizing the air current to make work for centuries. Mechanical energy or electrical energy is made from the wind`s kinetic energy. Wind can force a boat when the canvass are up. Farmers have used the air current to crunch their maize and wheat by turning crunching rocks, which works like a H2O wheel. Windmills have been around for centuries and used to pump H2O from Wellss. Windmills were used in Holland to travel H2O from low lying countr ies. The air current has been used for old ages, and now more and more it is used to do electricity. Air traveling over the Earth produces air current power energy. In rural countries the windmill was replaced by electricity brought in by power lines. The air current turbines became more popular in the 1970s when used to replace the more expensive electricity. In the `80s and `90s when the environment became more of import the turbine was seen as an good energy beginning that did non damage the environment. Wind energy is converted into mechanical energy by utilizing a air current turbine. When used to pump H2O or as a crunching rock the machine is called a windmill. If the power is changed into electricity, the machine is a air current turbine or a air current generator. The Ã¢â¬Å"upwindÃ¢â¬ air current turbine has three blades the faces into the air current. Another common air current turbine is the two-bladed or lee turbine. Wind turbines make electricity by working antonym of a fan. A air current turbine uses air current to do power, but a fan uses electricity to do air current. The shaft of the turbine connects to a generator, and as the air current turns the blades electricity is produced. Large turbines range in size from 50 to 70 kWs, while little turbines that are used for places or H2O pumping produce below 50 kWs. Horizontal axis and perpendicular axis are the two general types of air current turbines. The differences in these turbines is: the perpendicular axis has blades that rotate perpendular to the land, and a horizontal axis blades` rotate analogue to the land. The most common air current turbine is the horizontal axis design, but the perpendicular axis turbine has been around for centuries. The perpendicular axis turbine does non roll up energy from the air current every bit good. The rotor or propellor with blades is used to acquire the energy from the air current in a air current turbine. The chief thrust shaft has a hub connected to it with the rotor attached. The generator is in the thrust shaft and that produces the electricity. Plastic, fibreglass, or epoxy covered wood are used to do the blades. Energy Quest- Drawing of Turbine Wind power because of the clean nature and environmental friendliness has ever been popular. Some people feel that air current power is better than solar power, because it keeps working after the Sun goes down. Weave power at times will be plenty and other power will non be needed, besides wind power is free. The high cost of air current turbines and holding to happen the right location are the major ailments about air current power. Wind systems are complicated and non easy to put in. They require regular care and replacing parts. Battery battalions are expensive and frequently have to be replaced. The unpredictable nature of energy production is the chief disadvantage of air current power. Reasonably strong air currents are required to hold the full usage of a air current power system. If the air current dies down the production of energy will diminish.
Monday, March 2, 2020
The fonts that make you remember more The fonts that make you remember more We are more likely to remember information when it is written in a hard-to-read font, according to psychologists at Princeton and Indiana universities. Researcher Connor Diemand-Yauman and his colleagues wanted to explore how fonts affect how much we remember from the text we read. They found that learning materials set in slightly harder-to-read fonts produced significantly higher scores in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ assignments. Arial vs Comic Sans The researchers presented 28 participants with information about three species of aliens, and gave them 90 seconds to learn the features that identified them. For half the participants, the information was presented in clear 16-point, black Arial font. Information for the remaining participants was presented in Comic Sans or Bodoni fonts, both in grey and 12-point. Participants were later tested on the identifying features of the alien species. Those who had learnt from the harder-to-read fonts answered 86.5 per cent of questions correctly, compared with 72.8 per cent by those who learnt from the easy-to-read fonts. The researchers replicated the findings in a similar study at a school in Chesterland, Ohio. Levels of processing So why did the participants remember more about the harder-to-read samples? Diemand-Yauman suggests that when we find something easy to read, we tend to take it as a sign that we already have mastery of the material. But when fonts make reading slightly harder, we often doubt whether we instantly Ã¢â¬ËgetÃ¢â¬â¢ it. As a result, we are more likely to go over the information again to make sure we fully understand it. This encourages deeper processing in the brain, which makes us remember more about the text. But that doesnt mean you use Cloister Black for your reports from now on. Improving readability One of the main challenges of writing is producing a document that people actually read. The participants in the studies above were more likely to read than normal. This is because text was given to them by people in authoritative positions (psychologists, teachers) and in test conditions. But your report isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an experiment. And your target audience may not feel obliged to read your piece at all, especially if itÃ¢â¬â¢s that little bit harder to read, or itÃ¢â¬â¢s set in an inappropriate font. Besides, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s more to business writing than getting people to remember the details in your documents. It is about setting a good impression too. Much like wearing a suit, your clients will judge your written output on presentation, and one way to get this right is to use the best fonts. Serif vs sans serif fonts Serif fonts are those with the twiddly strokes at the ends of characters (eg Times New Roman, Minion). There is an argument that serif fonts are more distinctive than sans serif fonts (without strokes, eg Arial, Calibri), and are therefore easier to read. However, there are plenty more studies that show there is no difference between them in terms of legibility. Interaction designer Alex Poole thinks most mainstream typefaces are equally legible. He says, Ã¢â¬ËIt makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility.Ã¢â¬â¢ Fonts help to set the tone of your professional identity. For business writing, they need to be formal but approachable; sensible but not staid; and consistent, not erratic. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why at Emphasis we prefer Arial, a sans serif font, because it is plain, clear and simple Ã¢â¬â just the qualities we recommend in writing. Reference: Fortune favors the bold (and the italicized): effects of disfluency on educational outcomes, Connor Diemand-Yauman et al, Cognition, Vol 118 (January 2011). To learn more about how we can help you, your team or your entire organisation transform your writing at work, download our free course catalogue today.